Medical underwriting and risk adjustment practices in 8 countries around the world

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Health insurance models vary from country to country. As highlighted in our first series of articles on international health markets (published last year), governments often dictate the role of private and public health insurance within any country.

This series of blog posts, published on Healthcare Town Hall, focuses on the medical underwriting and risk adjustment practices of eight countries: Australia, Ghana, Ireland, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, and United Arab Emirates.



The national public health system in Australia — ”Medicare”—provides universal health coverage for all Australian citizens and most permanent residents. Read more >>


Ghana reformed its healthcare provision and launched the National Health Insurance Bill in 2003 with an aim to provide universal access to healthcare. Read more >>


The national public health system in Ireland provides access to health services to all people ordinarily resident in Ireland. Read more >>

New Zealand

The publicly funded health system in New Zealand is a tax-funded system that provides (largely) free healthcare at the point of use to New Zealand permanent residents and citizens, plus various other eligible groups. Read more >>

Saudi Arabia

The provision of free healthcare is enshrined in the constitution of Saudi Arabia. Read more >>

South Africa

South Africa’s health system consists of a large public sector and a smaller but fast-growing private sector—these two sectors are essentially disconnected and exist in parallel. Read more >>


The Spanish National Health System (NHS) follows an integrated model in which the financing (through general taxes), purchasing, and provision of health services are mainly public. Read more >>

United Arab Emirates

UAE is a typical hybrid public-private insurance model. Read more >>




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